Sunday, 5 February 2012

Score 27/01 in LTW 2012 Winter Challenge

Episode 27/01 has been scored. There are a couple of late entries added.

This was an interesting exercise.
I will not post my view, because the challenge was not to find out what happened, but to see how consistent the challengers wrote. The readers of LTW can pick the one they think most came near what actually happened. As long as they are aware that finding facts out of a 43 second video is very tricky without any statements from sailors involved. That is more than obvious, after you’ve read the different facts found, the challengers came up with.

Instead of publishing the specific entries in the comments after the LTW 2012 Winter Challenge 27/01: Rolex Miami OCR 49er Crash post, I’ve copied them all in this post and commented on them as well.
That way I can add the pictures that were send in by some of the challengers.
(There are a couple of comments in the original post, but those are from non contestants and published after the deadline)

So in order to read what the Challengers send in for this episode:

Challenger: EdF

Facts Found: BER was sailing upwind on port tack. AUT and USA were sailing downwind, with USA on port and AUT on starboard. USA was on the port gybe lay line for the starboard rounding leeward mark.
AUT and USA were on a collision course. BER's course was to leeward of AUT's track.
USA bore away, and shortly after, AUT bore away and gybed for the mark into a position just to windward of USA. BER entered the zone as she gybed.
During her gybe, but after the mainsail had filled on port gybe, AUT's bowsprit made contact with BER's helmsman, and swept him from his position, forcing BER into a tack. BER had tried to avoid contact by bearing away as AUT gybed. 

USA was keeping clear on port. AUT gybed before USA had to alter course to keep clear.
At the point where AUT made contact with BER's helmsman, AUT was required to keep clear as windward boat, and therefore broke 11. 15 does not apply, as BER acquired right of way because of AUT's action of gybing.
BER tried to avoid contact - by bearing away - but was unsuccessful. AUT did not try and avoid contact, and therefore broke 14. 

Decision: AUT DSQ.

COMMENTS I’m missing rule 18 and all the obligations and rights thereof. Also the course change by AUT, any 16.1 conclusions?
But your conclusions are mostly consistent with the facts found and the decision with the conclusions. Save for; USA bearing away before AUT in the facts, yet you conclude that AUT gybed before USA had to alter course… Try to include distances between boats, marks, etc in your facts, then you can avoid this kind of contradiction. Avoid conclusions in you facts: “ BER had tried to avoid contact…” is a conclusion. Better would be: “When AUT gybed at a distance of two meter from BER, BER bore away”
The language in your conclusions should be more from the rulebook. for instance: “It was not reasonably possible for BER to avoid contact”

SCORE 7 points. (no picture – no bonus points)


Challenger: Pelso

Facts Found 1. Black and Red sailed downwind towards the starboard gate mark on converging courses, Black on the port tack lay line, Red on starboard tack.
2. Yellow (BER) sailed towards the same mark from a position well below the lay line, on port tack, close-hauled. Yellow crossed ahead of White who came on starboard tack close-hauled. This course took Yellow 2.5 hull length to windward of the mark. She would still have been able to safely cross ahead of Red, had they not changed course.
3. Red decided to gybe, outside the zone, for tactical reasons.
4. Red reached the zone on port tack, one hull length outside of and overlapped with Black.
5. When Red started to bear away to gybe, at 3 hull lengths to windward of Yellow, Yellow responded promptly by bearing away too.
6. In the midst of gybing, Red’s bowsprit hit Yellow’s helmsman. Yellow continued racing.
7. Time between Red’s first course change and the contact was 2 seconds.
8. Black then rounded the mark ahead of Red.
9. Neither damage nor injury occurred.
10. Red took a One-Turn penalty. 


1. While Red was on starboard tack, Black and Yellow kept clear of Red under rule 10.
2. Black kept clear of Yellow under rule 11. Yellow kept clear of White under rule 10.
3. After Red gybed to port, Yellow, a leeward, right of way boat continued changing course away from Red, thus complied with rule 16.1.
4. Red as windward boat did not keep clear of Yellow. Red broke rule 11.
5. It was not reasonably possible for Yellow to avoid contact. Yellow did not break rule 14.
6. It was reasonably possible for Red to avoid contact, by acting earlier. Red broke rule 14, but as a boat entitled to room to keep clear, she is exonerated under rule 14(b).
7. As Red took the appropriate penalty (SI2.2), she is not penalized further (rule 64.1(b)). 

Decision Protest dismissed. 

COMMENTS: Not bad, but not perfect either; Try to avoid any conclusions in your Facts Found. The reason why things happen is not a fact. We just want an accurate description of what happened. I like that you include some distances and a time frame, but that could be done more.
What about rule 18? Yellow entered the zone as inside boat, entitled to mark room. Did Red break rule 18.2(b)? 
In conclusion 3 you say Yellow was compliant with rule 16.1 by bearing away?  If Yellow hadn’t bore off, but sailed straight, she would still not break rule 16.1!
Red could reasonably avoid the contact, agreed, but she gets NO exoneration. She was keep clear boat, Yellow had no 15 limitation and didn’t break 16.1. Red had was not entitled to room from any boat….. her sole obligation (without any limitation from the row boat) was to keep clear.

Score 6 points + 1,5 for the picture (I’m missing a wind direction, point of contact and indication it was a gate mark)


Challenger: Zaphod

Facts found 49ers sailing in steady, moderate breeze, almost flat water, approaching/leaving leeward mark to be left to starboard.
PC diagram attached. 

Position 1: 1. Black, broad reaching towards mark on port tack with gennaker set, on converging course with Red, broad reaching towards mark on stbd tack, also with gennaker set; boats are approx 2 boat lengths apart with Black to stbd of Red; both moving fast (about 1.5 boat lengths per second = 15kts).
2. Blue, approx 3 boat lengths to leeward of Black and Red, close reaching on port tack without gennaker set (but still on leg towards leeward mark), sailing to cross in front of Yellow close-hauled on stbd tack (sailing away from mark on next leg of course).
3. Red would pass astern of Blue if neither changed course.
4. All boats apart from Yellow outside the zone.

Position 2 (approx 1 second after position 1): 5. Black bears away to a run (still on port) and prepares to drop gennaker. Red maintains course and speed. Black and Red still converging, now approx 1 boat length apart; still moving fast.
6. Blue crosses approx 1 boat length in front of Yellow (who maintains close-hauled stbd tack course) and starts to bear away. Blue now approx 1.5 boat lengths to leeward of Black and Red.
7. Both Black and Red now on course to sail astern of Blue.

Between positions 2 and 3: 8. Black maintains course; starts to drop gennaker; slows down. Red bears away sharply, gennaker aback, less than a boat length to port of Black; now heading for Blue, less than a boat length ahead.
9. Yellow maintains close-hauled stbd tack course. Blue continues to bear away steadily, approx half a boat length to stbd of Yellow.
10. (Blue enters zone shortly before position 3, with Red overlapped to windward and outside. Red gybes onto port tack just before position 3).

At position 3 (approx 1 second after position 2): 11. Red’s bowsprit makes contact with Blue’s helm (on the port quarter), knocking him into the centre of the boat. There is no damage or injury. Blue continues racing after recovering from contact.
12. No boat does turns.

LTW Winter Challenge 2012 Episode 3 - Zaphod

Conclusions (Assume Blue protests Red and Red protests Black; both protests valid. No protest by Yellow).
1. Black (port) fails to keep clear of Red (stbd) breaking rule 10. No penalty taken.
2. Red (stbd, right of way) is compelled to bear away to avoid contact with Black. In doing so she fails to give Blue (port, keep clear) room to keep clear. Red thereby breaks rule 16.1 (and also rules 11 and 19.2(b)), but is exonerated under rule 64.1(c).
3. Having born away to avoid Black it was not reasonably possible for Red to avoid contact with Blue; she therefore does not break rule 14.
4. Blue (port) was keeping clear of Red (stbd) as required by rule 10. It was not reasonably possible for Blue to avoid contact with Red once Red had born away; Blue therefore does not break rule 14.

Decision 1. Blue protest of Red dismissed.
2. Red protest of Black upheld.
3. Disqualify (DSQ) Black for breach of rule 10.

COMMENTS: Very good, your facts found are very accurate and have distances and timing included. Your conclusions are almost consistent with the facts. Only one issue. You say Red breaks rule 19.2(b). In my opinion Black is the right of way boat and can choose which side to pass the obstruction (Blue). She’s pointing astern of Blue and must give room to Red to do the same. So Black breaks first rule 10 and then, after Red has gybed, rule 19.2(b).

Score 8 points  + 1,5 for the picture (I’m missing a wind direction, point of contact and indication it was a gate mark)


Challenger: Dauphine

Facts found 1. X and Y were broad reaching towards the starboard gate mark. Y was sailing at approximately 15 kts on starboard tack and X was on port, converging at a point outside the zone.
2. At that time, Z was close hauled on port in the following leg, on a course passing clear ahead of Y.
3. When Y was 1.5 boat lengths from X, she gybed and changed course 40 degrees to port, to avoid X. X and Y were still outside the zone.
4. Z bore away hard to avoid Y, who was now to windward on port tack.
5. While Y and Z were turning, there was contact between Y’s bowsprit and Z’s skipper, who was on a trapeze.
6. No injury or damage was caused.
7. Had Y not turned so far to port, she would have had contact with X.

Abbreviations The boat with the black gennaker is boat X;
The boat with the red gennaker is boat Y;
The boat sailing close hauled is boat Z.

Dauphine's Diagram_Page_1_Image_0001

Conclusions 1. X, on port, did not keep clear of Y, on starboard, and broke rule 10.
2. Y did not keep clear of Z, to leeward, and broke rule 11.
3. Y was compelled to break rule 11 by X breaking rule 10, so Y is exonerated under rule 64.1(c).
4. Neither Y nor Z could not have reasonably avoided contact: Neither broke rule 14.

Decision X is DSQ

COMMENTS: Good. I need some more distances between boats in the facts found. Look at it this way: You must be able to create the diagram accurately with only the facts found. You also have a boat missing in the diagram. (as well as a wind direction, point of contact and gate indication).

But your conclusions and decision are consistent and concise. Much better than before.

Score 9 point + 1 for the picture.


Challenger: Grey Bear

Facts found : 1.    For the Men's Two Person High Performance Dinghy the penalty to be taken at the time of an incident (rule 44) was a One-Turn Penalty (Miami OCR SI 20.2).
2.    The mark was a gate mark to be left to starboard (see Miami OCR SI Addendum B)
2.    White entered the zone on port overlapped inside of Black and Red. Red, on starboard was overlapped outside of Black on port.
3.    Red was on a course to pass astern of White, but on a collision course with Black.
4.    White was not flying a spinnaker, both Red and Black where flying spinnakers.
5.    Red was sailing fast, and until she bore away, she made no attempt to slow down.
6.    White sailed high of the lay-line to the mark passing between two boats beating to windward on starboard. Neither of these starboard-tack boats took avoiding action.
7.    White passed half a boat length ahead of the trailing starboard boat, then immediately bore away towards the mark. Red was still on a course to pass astern of White.
8.    At this point Red was less than 3 hull lengths from the mark, a boat length from White  and still overlapped outside of Black.
9.    Immediately after White began to bear away, Red also bore away and her mainsail  passed the centre line and filled on the port side.
10.    Whilst White, a hull length from the mark, was still bearing away, the bowsprit of Red passed between the crew and helm of Red. There was contact between Red's bowsprit and the helm of White.
11.    White's helm was knocked of balance and fell overboard still attached to his trapeze wire. White lost control and luffed beyond head to wind finishing stalled on port tack.
12.    Red sailed to the mark, took down her spinnaker and gybed, then luffed on to a close-hauled course on starboard tack. Black, to leeward,  passed between Red and the mark then gybed and luffed at the mark to close-hauled on starboard.
13.    Neither White, Red nor Black took a one turn penalty. 

LTW WC 2701 Grey Bear
Note: for clarity the diagram only illustrates the incident up to the moment of contact.

Conclusions. 1.    The mark was a gate mark. Rule 18.4 did not apply.
2.    White kept clear of both starboard-tack beating boats. White did not break rule 10.
3.    White, overlapped on the inside, was entitled to mark room from both Red and Black.
4.    Mark-room includes room to keep clear of a right of way boat.
5.    Having kept clear of the right of way beating boats, White manoeuvred promptly to sail to the mark. White was taking mark-room to which she was entitled.
6.    When White, on port changed course, Red was right of way boat on starboard. White did not break rule 16.1.
7.    Red, on starboard, did not need to take avoiding to avoid White on port. White did not break rule 10.
8.    When Red gybed on to port, she became overlapped to windward of White. White acquired right of way because of  Red's action and White was not required to initially give Red room to keep clear (rule 15).
9.    Red, to windward, did not keep clear of White, to leeward. Red broke rule 11.
10.    Red, outside overlapped at the zone, did not give White mark-room to sail to the mark. Red broke rule 18.2(b).
11.    Before contact it was not clear to White, a right of way boat entitled to mark-room, that Red was neither keeping clear nor giving mark room. White did not break rule 14.
12.    It was reasonably possible for Red to avoid contact by slowing down or taking down her spinnaker when it became clear that she had to give mark-room to both White and Black. Red broke rule 14.
13.    When Red entered the zone Black was overlapped on the inside of Red. Red was required to give Black mark-room.
14.    Black, on port, sailed directly to the mark, taking mark-room to which she was entitled. Red, on starboard, needed to take avoiding action. Black broke rule 10 but is exonerated under rule 18.5(a).
15.    Red was required to change course to give Black mark room. Although Black broke rule 10 this did not compel Red to break rule 11 and rule 18.2(b). Red is not exonerated under rule 64.1(c)

Decision 1.    Black is exonerated under rule 18.5 (a).
2.    Red is disqualified (rule 64.1(a)

COMMENTS: Too long Grey Bear. You have unnecessary facts, like who was or was not flying gennakers.
And some of your conclusions do not make sense: Mark-room does not include room to keep clear. A boat may be exonerated for breaking a row rule (4). A boat can never break rule 16.1 if she’s keep clear boat (6). ….did not need to take avoiding to avoid White in port?(7) Don’t include conclusions that are not necessary (7+15)

Score 7 points + 1,5 for the picture (I do like the bowsprit and gennaker on Red!)


Challenger: Goomer

Abbreviations: BER:  BER 1042 (no spin - injured helmsman)
RED:  AUT 070 (Red Spinnaker)
BLACK:  USA 817 (Black spinnaker)
BLUE: MEX 1070 (Blue spinnaker)

LTW WC 2701 Goomer

Conclusions: 1. At  Time 0:01 RED, BLACK, and BER are overlapped, approaching a Leeward gate mark to be left to starboard. BER, reaching on port, is keeping clear of a stb. upwind ROW boat (rule 10). BER is also keeping clear of RED, on starboard (rule 10).  BLACK, on port, must keep clear of BER (rule 11), and RED (rule 10).
2. At Time 0:03, BER’s bow enters the zone, turning on rule 18.2(b). The three boats are overlapped. RED owes mark-room to BLACK and BER. BLACK owes mark-room to BER.
3. After clearing the stb. upwind ROW boat, BER begins bearing away to go to the mark. At the same time, RED bears away towards BER so that BER is unable to keep clear. At Time 0:04 RED’s bow sprit makes contact with BER’s skipper. RED breaks rule 16.1.  RED could have avoided contact by bearing away a moment later. RED breaks rule 14. BER’s skipper sustained minor injuries, so RED can be penalized under rule 14. RED also breaks rule 18.2(b).
BER breaks rule 10, but is exonerated by 18.5(a) and 64.1(c). It was not possible for BER to avoid the contact - she does not break rule 14.
4. By knocking over BER’s skipper, RED forces him to lose control of his boat. Out of control, BER luffs, passes head to wind, and must keep clear under rule 13.  Rule 18 no longer applies between BER and the other boats. At Time 0:25 BER completes her tack onto Stb. and acquires ROW (rule 10). Since BER was forced to acquire ROW because of RED’s actions, rule 15 does not apply.
5. After tacking BER bears away further, making it impossible for RED to keep clear. At Time 0:27 BER’s boom touches RED’s skipper. BER breaks rule 16.1. As BER’s skipper has not yet been able to gain control of the boat, her actions continue to be a consequence of RED’s earlier infringement. BER is again exonerated under 64.1(c).  RED breaks rule 10, but was compelled to by BER’s breaking 16.1, so RED is also exonerated under rule 64.1(c). Neither boat could have avoided the contact, so neither broke rule 14.
6. RED gives mark-room to BLACK as required by 18.2(b).
7. BER’s skipper regains control and luffs head to wind on stb. (Time 0:32). BER is right of way over BLUE, who is approaching the mark on port (rule 10). BLUE keeps clear, and BER complies with 16.1 by giving BLUE room to keep clear.
8. BER passes head to wind, and complies with rule 13 by keeping clear of BLUE.

Disqualify AUT 070 (RED) under rules 14, 16.1, and 18.2(b).

COMMENTS: I had a hard time with your boat identification. Wouldn’t it be easier to use either colours or nationalities, not both? Also your facts found are in the conclusions. Try to separate them and write Facts Found first. Then by following those facts, draw your conclusions. 
Exoneration is either under 18.5(a) or 64.1(c), not both.

Since what happens after the initial contact is the consequence of the first rule infringement, you do not need to write that down. And that a boat complies with the rules, is also unnecessary information.

Score 6 + 1 point for the photo (I do like your zone!)


Challenger: David S

Facts: Multiple 49ers are approaching a Leeward gate.
A (yellow jib) has apparently rounded the right mark (looking downwind) and is close hauled on Port
B (red spinnaker) is on Starboard approaching C and D
C (black spinnaker) is on Port and initially overlapped inside B
D has apparently rounded the left mark and is close hauled on Starboard
A is initially keeping clear of B
B bears off and subsequently jibes to Port to go behind A and D
C enters zone overlapped and jibes around mark
D maintains its course

Rules When outside the zone, B has right of way on C under rule 10 but chooses to bear off and jibe to Port, apparently to keep clear of right of way D under rule 11
When B bears off, it fails to give way under rule 16.1 to A and when it jibes to Port it fails to give way to A under rule 11. B is penalized. B also breaks rule 14 but there is no evidence that damage or injury has been sustained so there is no further penalty.

A, C and D are not penalized.

COMMENTS: If I accept the sentences under ‘rules’ as conclusions, I have a hard time understanding how you came to those, from the facts you wrote down. I don’t know how close boats are, I don’t know how much time has passed. There’s no contact in the facts, so how can a boat be breaking rule 14?….. And a keep clear boat (B, without entitlement to room) breaking rule 14, has no exoneration under 14.(b).

Can I make a suggestion? Draw on a piece of paper al four boats from position one to six. Each position a couple of seconds later (say 2). After that write down the facts in each of the six positions. Then state for each boat in each position if she’s row, or keep clear boat and if she’s entitled to room or mark-room.

After that you can draw conclusions and decide if someone needs to be DSQ-ed. Then go back and cross out anything that has no relationship with the conclusions.

Score 4 points (no picture – no bonus points)


Challenger: Rodeo

FACTS FOUND: BER, BLACK and AUT are sailing towards the leeward mark.
BER and BLACK are sailing on port tack.
AUT is sailing on starboard tack.
AUT and BLACK are sailing on a collision course.
Before BER enters the zone, she is overlapped to leeward of BLACK.
BER enters the zone while bearing down onto a course to the mark.
When BER enters the zone, she is overlapped to the inside of AUT.
After BER entered the zone, she is clear ahead of BLACK.
When BLACK enters the zone, she is overlapped to the inside of AUT.
AUT and BLACK are sailing to pass behind BER.
AUT bears away at a distance of 1.5 boat lengths to BLACK and BER and gybes to port tack.
Contact occurs between the gennaker pole of AUT and the helmsman of BER.
As a consequence, BERs helmsman loses balance and falls into the boat.
BER luffs hard.
No boat suffered damage or injury.
No boat takes a penalty. 

No penalty turns are visible in the video, so it was assumed that no penalties were taken.
Neither damage nor injury were visible in the video, so it was assumed that neither damage nor injury was sustained. It was further assumed that protest procedures on the water were properly followed and that a valid protest was submitted.

In the diagram, following colours were used:
Yellow = irrelevant boats
Green = BER
Black = BLACK
Red = AUT

Please be aware that in the video the helicopter does not hold its position. That leads to a turning effect in the video, while at the same time the cameraman zooms in and out. If you follow the course of the beating boat and if you follow the washes of the other boats, you may see the turn and can relate courses and positions to the mark. My diagram was drawn based on this.

CONCLUSIONS AND RULES THAT APPLY: There is reasonable doubt whether BER broke the overlap to BLACK before entering the zone and therefore RRS 18.2(d) applies.
BER is entitled to mark-room from BLACK and AUT under RRS 18.2(b).
BER sails a course to pass safely in front of AUT.
BER sails directly to the mark and does not take more room than she is entitled to under the definition of mark-room.
BLACK is entitled to mark-room from AUT under 18.2(b).
BLACK sails directly to the mark and does not take more room than she is entitled to under the definition of mark-room.
BLACK keeps clear from AUT and complies with RRS 10.
BER did acquire right of way by AUTs gybe, therefore RRS 15 does not apply.
AUT fails to keep clear from BER and hereby infringes RRS 11.
AUT fails to give mark-room to BER and hereby infringes RRS 18.2(b).
AUT failed to avoid the collision when it was reasonably possible for her to do so and hereby infringed RRS 14.
BER could not reasonably avoid the collision and did not break RRS 14. 

AUT is disqualified under RRS 64.1(a) for breaking RRS 11, 14 and 18.2(b). 

In my opinion there are some conclusions among the facts. For instance: ‘When BER enters the zone, she is overlapped to the inside of AUT’. Also: ‘When BLACK enters the zone, she is overlapped to the inside of AUT’ That is not only a conclusion, but also the wrong way round. Rule 18.2(b) between two boats is applied, when the first of them enters the zone (=AUT)
I don’t like mixing names: use all Colours or use Nationalities.

Your first conclusion is superfluous. BER would get mark-room either way, as inside boat or as clear ahead boat. Also nrs 3, 4, 6 and 7 are not neccesary. The others are consistent with your facts found.

Score 7 + 1,5 for the picture


Why does nobody draw the wind direction any more, or indicate point of contact? It would also be nice to indicate if the mark was a gate mark or had to be left at a particular side…..

All parties involved in a protest know what has been said and drawn, in the hearing. They know these things. But you must write and draw to show a complete outsider (appeals committee member for instance) exactly what has happened. He needs all information together on the form.


  1. Thanks for comments Jos. Must admit I hadn't thought about 19.2(b) between Black and Red with Blue as the obstruction. When I said Red broke 19.2(b) I was thinking of Yellow as the obstruction, with Blue having chosen to pass to windward.

    Also, how would you recommend showing the point of contact on a diagram?


    1. Yes, I understand. But since Black is the row-boat she can choose to pass to windward of Yellow and Red has to keep clear under 11.
      Point of contact can be done with a little text box attached to the appropriate boat with the word CONTACT...

  2. Pedantic point

    row-boat has oars
    ROW-boat has right of way

    1. In the BPR a row-boat has ROW over a sail-boat :-)

      nevertheless, point taken.

  3. Jos

    Thanks for your comments.

    One thing I don't understand is why is it necessary to include the other close hauled boat in the diagram? She wasn't involved in the incident - she isn't referred to in the facts found and she has no affect on the protest outcome. Isn't the point of the diagram to show clearly the relative courses of the boats involved?



    1. The reason to include the close hauled boats in my opinion is to have a complete picture. The reason Yellow sailed so high was to avoid those close hauled boats.
      I must admit that in your facts found the Yellow boat was already on a new leg and the starboard close hauled boats were no longer a factor. In that regard you are correct that they didn't have an impact and can be left out.
      I stand corrected.


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